This post allows you to give brief advice if it send that a child has problems with anxiety. It should be read after you have gone through our introductory post, and is intended for non specialists working in health services.
When to think of anxiety
Excessive anxiety is common in childhood, but is particularly common in chronic or recurrent pain (up to 80%) and in developmental conditions, especially autistic spectrum disorders.
What are the key questions to ask
Worries: in quiet moments, does the child worry about going to school, harm coming to their family or themselves, any imaginary creatures or anticipated events
Avoidance: anything that the child doesn’t do, or doesn’t want to do
Sleep: difficulty settling, frequent waking, nightmares
Eating: restrictive patterns, poor appetite
Safety checks: (seek advice if these are happening)
Is the child harming themselves, or consider doing so?
Does the child feel worthless?
What advice can you give?
There are two main forms that therapy takes, both of which can be applied in a ‘low-voltage’ fashion in non-specialist settings.
Firstly, it is helpful to draw out the thoughts and beliefs that underlie the anxiety. This is not so that the adult can dismiss them as silly or mistaken, but so the child can be helped to compare the harmful cognitions with their other beliefs and feelings (e.g. monsters aren’t real) which can then be used to challenge the anxiety. Equally, it’s important when a child is worried about a particular event to talk through what consequences may result, and again check that the child really thinks these consequences are likely, and plausible. In some cases, especially involving social situations, it may that the child’s fears are justified, in which case negotiation with third parties (teachers, family) would be useful.
Secondly, some kind of graduated exposure is often helpful. Say the child is scared of going to the toilet alone. Going with a parent, but with the parent then standing in the doorway would be a good start, which the child could be rewarded for. Next time, they would need to tolerate the parent being in the hallway in order to earn a reward, and so on.
These techniques are explained further in resources
This fact sheet can be a useful start for parents . Simple-ways-to-help-children-with-fears-and-anxieties
The Mind Ed portal has a lot of information on anxiety. It’s designed for professionals, but there is really no reason why a motivated parent can’t access it, especially
The session on school avoidance is excellent, and there are loads of generalisable tips in it